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Eastern White Pine Sample Data Page

( Return to The Wood Explorer CD Main Page )

Each report would normally be associated with 1-10 photos of the wood.

Also see  Mahogany  and  Norway Spruce

Eastern White Pine

Scientific Name

Pinus strobus

Trade Name
Eastern white pine

Family Name
Pinaceae

Common Names
American yellow pine
Austrian white pine
Canadain white pine
Canadian yellow pine
Cork pine
Eastern white pine
Northern white pine
Ottawa pine
Ottawa white pine
Pattern pine
Pumpkin pine
Pumpkin pine
Quebec pine
Quebec yellow pine
Sapling pine
Soft pine
Weymouth pine
Yellow pine

Regions of Distribution
Central America
North America

Countries of Distribution
Canada
Mexico
United States

Common Uses
Agricultural implements
Balusters
Beams
Bedroom suites
Boat building (general)
Boat building
Boat building: decking
Boat building: masts
Boxes and crates
Building construction
Building materials
Cabin construction
Cabinetmaking
Canoes
Carvings
Caskets
Casks
Chairs
Chests
Coffins
Concealed parts (Furniture)
Concrete formwork
Construction
Decks
Decorative veneer
Desks
Dining-room furniture
Dowell pins
Dowells
Drawer sides
Drawing boards
Drum sticks
Excelsior
Exterior trim & siding
Exterior uses
Flooring
Food containers
Furniture
Furniture
General carpentry
Interior trim
Joinery
Ladders
Light construction
Matches
Millwork
Moldings
Musical instruments
Musical instruments
Musical instruments: piano
Novelties
Paneling
Paneling
Sculpture
Shade rollers
Shipbuilding
Sporting Goods
Toys
Woodenware

Environmental Profile
Widespread, abundant and globally secure
May be rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery
Data source is Nature Conservancy

Distribution Overview
Eastern white pine (also called Weymouth pine in England where it is widely planted) occurs extensively in North America. Its growth range extends from Newfoundland and Quebec west to central Ontario and southeastern Manitoba, south to Minnesota, northeasrn Iowa, northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, and south in the mountains to western North Carolina, northern Georgia, and Tennessee. It is also reported to occur locally in western Kentuck and western Tennessee. The tree prefers well-drained sandy soils, and is sometimes found in pure stands from near sea level to an altitude of about 2000 feet (615 m), and up to 5000 feet (1525 m) in the southern Appalachians.

Heartwood Color
+ Brown
+ Red
White
Yellow
Orange
Pink
Purple

Reddish brown
Pale brown
White to cream
Yellow to golden-yellow to orange
Pale red to pink
Red
Resin ducts at times appear as thin brown lines
Darkens upon exposure
Cream colored to light brown or reddish brown, or pale yellow to pale brown
Brown
Differences between Eastern white and Western white pine are so slight that the two species cannot be distinguished without laboratory tests

Sapwood Color
+ White
+ Yellow
Brown
Red

+ White to yellow
Paler than heartwood
Same as heartwood
Nearly white to pale yelllowish white
Narrow to medium in width

Grain
+ Straight
Figure
Growth rings (figure)
Even
Mottled (figure)
Weak (figure)

+ Straight
Clear growth rings (figure)
Weak figure
Straight and even
Mottled figure

Texture
+ Fine
Medium
Even or uniform
Uniform
Coarse

Fine
Medium
Medium coarse to coarse
Fine to medium
Even textured

Natural Growth Defects
Latex or other ducts

Natural Durability
Non-durable
Durable
Moderately durable
Perishable
Susceptible to insect attack
Non-resistant to termites
Resistant to powder post beetles

Non durable
Resistant to attack from pinworms (ambrosia beetles)
Susceptible to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Should be chemically treated before using in high decay hazard conditions
Sapwood is susceptible to wood staining fungal attack
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Moderately resistant
Moderately durable
Moderate resistance to attack by decay organisms
Prolonged exposure to exterior atmospheric conditions is reported to weather the wood to a light gray color, with a moderate sheen.

Weathering
Good

Odor
Has an odor
Very fine
Distinct (figure)

Non-Descriptive resinous odor
No specific taste
Figure occurrence is very fine and distinct
Scent and resin canals are two features that can be used, with a reasonable degree of certainty, to differentiate between Eastern white pine and Sugar pine: the latter pine is reported to often have a sweeter scent and much larger resin canals

Light-Induced Color Change
Darker

Kiln Schedules
Drying (speed) is fast
Dry at a moderate speed
UK=L US=T146C6S/T12C5S
Standard T11-C5(4/4);T10-C4(8/4) Schedule L (4/4) United Kingdom
Different drying schedule recommended to prevent brown stains

Drying Defects
Resin Exudation
Ring Shakes
Discoloration
Distortion

Slight twist/warp
Sap stain is common
Prpoer stacking to allow adequate air-flow thru pile is essential during air-seasoning
No twisting or warping
Expect resin/gum exudation
Brown stains and ring failure during drying

Ease of Drying
+ Fairly Easy
Rapidly
Gum Exudation
Slowly
Reconditioning Treatement

+ Easy
Air dries slowly with low shrinkage
Air dries easily and uniformly

Kiln Drying Rate
Naturally dries quickly
Naturally dries at a moderate speed

Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is unknown

Tree Size
Tree height is 30-40 m
Tree height is 40-50 m
Tree height is 20-30 m
Trunk diameter is 100-150 cm
Tree height is 60-70 m
Tree height is 50-60 m
Tree height is greater than 70 m
Bark width is 30-40 mm
Bark width is 40-50 mm
Bark width is 25-30 mm
Tree height is 10-20 m

Certified Source
Certified Source

Comments
Abnormal wood tissue in the form of compression wood may be present

General finishing qualities are rated as good

Yields ingredient used in cough syrups for treatments of bronchial ailments

Blunting Effect
Little

Blunting effect on machining is slight
Slight dulling effect on cutting tools

Boring
Fairly easy to very easy
Fair to good results

Easy
Responds well to boring
Clean bored surfaces

Carving
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy

Responds well to carving operations

Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw

Easy to cut in any direction

Gluing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results

Easy to glue
Good gluing properties

Mortising
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Finishes well
Easy to mortise
Generally mortises well

Moulding
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Good finishing results
Easy to mould
Good moulding properties

Movement in Service
+ Excellent Stability - Small Movement
Fair to Good Stability - Medium Movement

Stable
Small
Retains shape very well after manufacture
Dimensionally stable

Nailing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Holds nails well
Easy to nail
Satisfactory resistance to decay above ground
Good nailing characteristics
Good nail holding properties

Planing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Planes well, to a good finish
Easy to plane
Soft, very uniform in texture and is very easy to work
Planes easily and worked surfaces are clean and smooth

Resistance to Impregnation
Permeable sapwood
Resistant heartwood
Permeable heartwood
Resistant sapwood

Heartwood is moderately resistant
Sapwood is permeable
Permeable
Fairly good response to preservative treatment

Resistance to Splitting
Satisfactory
Good
Excellent

Response to Hand Tools
+ Easy to Work
Responds Readily

+ Easy to machine
Yields clean surfaces
Responds well to hand tools

Routing & Recessing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Routing yields good results
Routing is easy
Generally good routing qualities

Sanding
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Good sanding properties
Good sanding finish
Easy to sand

Screwing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Screwing yields good results
Easy to screw
Accept all types of fasteners, and will take fine gauge screws without pilot holes

Turning
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Good results
Easy to turn
Too weak for durable spindles
Does not turn as well as some harder woods
Like Sugar pine but to a lesser degree, Eastern white pine is reported to leave a very pleasing resinous aroma in the workshop.

Veneering Qualities
Veneers moderately easy
Difficult to veneer
Veneers easily
Suitable for peeling

There is slight to moderate drying degrade and the potential for buckles and splits
Moderately easy to veneer

Steam Bending
Poor to Very Poor Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult

Very poor steam bending characteristics

Painting
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy

Good results
Good painting characteristics

Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy

Good results
Polishes and finishes very well

Staining
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Finish is generally good
Stains easily
Retains soft and mellow figure even under dark stains

Varnishing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results

Good results
Good varnishing properties
Fewer coats of varnish are needed since uneven swelling of grain is less common

Strength Properties
+ Density (dry weight) = 23-30 lbs/cu. ft.
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = very low
Max. crushing strength = low
Hardness (side grain) = very soft
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = very low
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = very low
Max. crushing strength (stiffness) = very low
Shrinkage, Radial = very small
Toughness (total work) = very low
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Density (dry weight) = 15-22 lbs/cu. ft.
Bending strength (MOR) = very low
Work to Maximum Load
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = low
Soft
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = low
Moderate weight
Medium bending strength in the air-dry condition (about 12% moisture content)
May dent easily
Density (dry weight) = 31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Crushing strength = medium
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Bending strength (MOR) = low
Average density

Numerical Data
                       Item     Green      Dry English    
           Bending Strength      5264     8980 psi        
          Crushing Strength       225      500 psi        
                    Density        25          lbs/ft3    
                   Hardness       352          lbs        
            Impact Strength        18       17 inches     
  Maximum Crushing Strength      2357     4588 psi        
          Shearing Strength       900          psi        
             Static Bending      2940     6566 psi        
                  Stiffness      1025     1228 1000 psi   
                  Toughness        95          inch-lbs   
       Work to Maximum Load         5        8 inch-lbs/in3
           Specific Gravity      0.32     0.33            
                     Weight        29       25 lbs/ft3    
           Radial Shrinkage         2          %          
       Tangential Shrinkage         6          %          
       Volumetric Shrinkage         8          %          

                       Item     Green      Dry Metric
           Bending Strength       370      631 kg/cm2
          Crushing Strength        15       35 kg/cm2
                    Density       400          kg/cm3
                   Hardness       159          kg  
            Impact Strength        45       43 cm  
  Maximum Crushing Strength       165      322 kg/cm2
          Shearing Strength        63          kg/cm2
             Static Bending       206      461 kg/cm2
                  Stiffness        72       86 1000 kg/cm2
                  Toughness       109          cm-kg
       Work to Maximum Load      0.35     0.56 cm-kg/cm3
           Specific Gravity      0.32     0.33     
                     Weight       464      400 kg/cm3
           Radial Shrinkage         2          %   
       Tangential Shrinkage         6          %   
       Volumetric Shrinkage         8          %    

References
Arno, J. 1991. Pinus strobus - Eastern white pine. In A Guide to Useful Woods of the World. Flynn Jr., J.H., Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. 1994. Page 274-275.

Betts, H.S.,1954,American Woods - Eastern White Pine,USDA, Forest Service American Woods

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois and E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Woods: Temperate and Tropical. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Madison, Wisconsin.

Brown, H.P. and Panshin, A.J.,1940,Commercial Timbers of the United States Their structure, identification,,properties and uses,McGraw-Hill, London

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World: - No.7 North America,TRADA

Canadian Forestry Service. 1981. Canadian Woods - Their Properties and Uses. Third Edition. E.J. Mullins and T.S. McKnight, Editors. Published by University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.

Chudnoff, M.,1984,Tropical Timbers of the World,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products,Laboratory, Madison.

Clifford, N.,1957,Timber Identification for the Builder and Architect,Leonard Hill (Books) LTD. London

Dallimore, W. and Jackson, A. Bruce,1966,A Handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae Fourth Ed. Revised by S.G.,Harrison,Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. London

Forest Products Research Laboratory U.K.,1957,A Handbook of Softwoods,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research,HMSO

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1945,A Handbook of Empire Timbers,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research

Grewal, G.S.,1979,Air seasoning properties of some Malaysian timbers,Malaysia Forestry Department, Forest Service, Trade Leaflet No.41

Howard, A.L.,1948,A Manual of Timbers of the World.,Macmillan & Co. Ltd. London 3rd ed.

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1991. Good Wood Handbook - The Woodworker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. Betterway Publications, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Kaiser, J. Wood of the Month: Eastern white pine - A Noble Species. Wood & Wood Products, January, 1992. Page 46.

Kloot, N.H., Bolza, E.,1961,Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia,C.S.I.R.O. Forest Products Division Technological Paper,No.12

Lavers, G. M. 1966. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50. Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Lavers, G.M.,1983,The Strength Properties of Timber (3rd ed. revised Moore G.L.,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Report (formerly Bulletin No.50)

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc., Fresno, California.

Lindquist, J.L.,1974,American Woods - Redwood,USDA, Forest Service American woods FS262

Little, E.L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees - Eastern Region. Published by Arthur A. Knopf, New York.

Markwardt, L.J., Wilson, T.R.C.,1935,Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin,No.479

Mirov, N.T. 1967. The Genus PINUS. The Ronald Press Company, New York. LCC Card No. 67-14783.

Mullins, E.J. and McKnight, T.S.,1981,Canadian Woods Their Properties and Uses,University of Toronto Press 3rd Edition

Panshin, A.J. and C. deZeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill Series in Forest Resources. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Record, S.J., Hess, R.W.,1943,Timbers of the New World,Yale University Press

Redding, L.W.,1971,Resistance of Timbers to Impregnation with Creosote,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Bulletin No.54 pp.43

Rendle, B.J.,1969,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Ernest Benn Ltd. London

Stone, H.,1924,The Timbers of Commerce and their Identification,William Rider & Sons Ltd. London

T.R.A.D.A.,1942,Home-grown timber trees - their characteristics, cultivation and Uses,TRADA

Thomas, A.V.,1964,Timbers Used in the Boat Building Industry A Survey,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research,Laboratory

Timber Development Association Ltd.,1955,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Timber Development Association Ltd.

Titmuss, F.H.,1965,Commercial Timbers of the World,Technical Press Ltd., London, 3rd edition

U.S.D.A. Forest Service,1974,Wood Handbook,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Handbook,72

USDA. 1987. Wood Handbook - Wood as an Engineering Material, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 72, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

USDA. 1988. Dry Kiln Operators Manual, Preliminary Copy. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

Wolcott, G.N.,1950,An Index to the Termite Resistance of Woods,Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Puerto Rico Bulletin,No.85

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Also see  Mahogany  and  Norway Spruce

 


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